THE RELIGIOUS MAMMAL

By Nancy Pfaff

"Religious experience is absolute. It is indisputable. You can only say that you have never had such an experience….No matter what the world thinks about religious experience, the one who has it possesses the great treasure of a thing that has provided him with a source of life, meaning and beauty and that has given a new splendor to the world and to mankind." Carl G. Jung

THE RELIGIOUS MAMMAL

What an amazing contemporary thought, that the human being is a "religious mammal." It is amazing because it implies that since we are human, we are religious by nature, by simply being alive as human. If this is so, and I believe it is, then the human being will reveal religious behavior as far back as we find recorded human history. In this paper, I step beyond the observable religious beliefs and behaviors of tribal peoples, and look at what may be the source of these religious phenomena--the numinosum coming forth through the nature of the human being. I see this as the essential origin of religion.

Anthony Wallace, author of Religion, An Anthropological View, believes that

…mankind has produced on the order of 100,000 different religions…based on several assumptions: first, that religion began with the Neanderthals, who about 100,000 years ago were carefully burying their dead with grave goods and building small altars of bear bones in caves; second, that there have been at all times since the Neanderthals a thousand or more culturally distinct human communities, each with its own religion; and third, that in any cultural tradition, religions change into ethnographically distinct entities at least every thousand years. Religion is a universal aspect of human culture. (Wallace, 1966, p. 3)

The origins of religion seem as mysterious as the subject of religion itself. By that I mean that anthropologists have been researching religion’s origins since the 19th century. One well-noted figure is Edward B. Tylor, author of Anthropology, An Introduction to the Study of Man and Civilization. Tylor suggests questions to be answered in the study of the origins of religion in the human. For example,

"how and why they believe in the soul and its existence after death, the spirits who do good and evil in the world, and the greater gods who pervade, actuate, and rule the universe." (Tylor, 1888, p. 342).

He tried to put himself in the place of a tribal human, to try to answer these questions, rather than actually interviewing the tribal human. He was an "armchair anthropologist.". Regarding religion, Tylor believed that one of the reasons tribal people believe in a soul is because they see images of people they know in their dreams (Tylor, p. 343

Initial anthropological research was done by "armchair" anthropologists who reflected on information gathered by missionaries, travelers, diplomats, etc. They did not actually participate among the peoples about whom they wrote. Bronislaw Milonowski of England and Franz Boas of the United States, highly regarded anthropologists and contemporaries in the early twentieth century, set a new and more effective course. They insisted on fieldwork, going among the peoples to be studied and really getting to know them up close. Whether an armchair anthropologist or an anthropologist working in the field, all agree that religion is seen in all human groupings. Evans-Pritchard impresses with caution those who would study religion:

Statements about a people’s religious beliefs must always be treated with the greatest caution, for we are then dealing with what neither European nor native can directly observe, with conceptions, images, words, which require for understanding a thorough knowledge of a people’s language and also an awareness of the entire system of ideas of which any particular belief is part, for it may be meaningless when divorced from the set of beliefs and practices to which it belongs (Evans-Pritcharrd, 1965, p. 7).

Carl G. Jung, in the tradition of Milonowski and Boas, studied both as a researcher and an analyst where he obtained first-hand understanding of the human psyche and its religious-making ways. He also interviewed tribal peoples regarding their dreams and religious beliefs (Jung, 1968). The great difficulty in studying religion in people is that there are intense emotions surrounding it. As Metcalf and Huntington point out,

The interpretation of emotion presents, however, special problems for the anthropologist, because we are not well equipped to deal with inner states. Even within our own cultures, it is hard to be sure that outward appearances match true feelings (Metcalf, 1991, p. 43).

Therefore, I believe anthropologists would do well to study the work of a specialist on inner states, namely, that of Carl G. Jung.

My own interest as a Christian Spiritual Director in the subject of origins of religion comes from concern over a decrease in interest in religion in the West (Europe and No. America) and decreasing church attendance in the main line churches (Roman Catholic, Episcopalian, Methodist, Lutheran, and Presbyterian) in the United States. Because religion has been an important aspect of human life in all times and places, it would appear that religion is a part of what it is to be human. If interest in religion is decreasing, is something wrong with the way religion is portrayed, is there something amiss in the contemporary human, or is another factor at work? I am also concerned that most anthropologists consider religious belief to be absurd, though Evans-Pritchard indicates that anthropologists studying religious behavior would do well to "read…deeply into, …Christian theology, history, exegesis, apologetics, symbolic thought, and ritual (Evans-Pritchard, 1965, p. 16). With my background in Christian theology, history, exegesis, apologetics and religious experience, I hope to bring an amplification to standard teaching in the anthropology of religion.

This paper will look at the religious nature of the human being whom I refer to as a religious mammal. The theme around which I will develop this topic is Jungian analytical psychology, developed by Carl Gustave Jung, a Swiss psychoanalyst who wrote between 1902 and 1961 when he died (Campbell, 1976, pp xxxii-xlii). Jung was a disciple of Sigmund Frued, but broke with him early on over disagreements on the structure of the human psyche. As Freud is classified by anthropology as taking a psychological stance toward religion, I am putting Jung in that camp. (I object to the term "emotionalist" because it is a pejorative word in current American usage. Ask any woman how she feels about being termed "emotional.")

I have selected Jung because he was studied by certain anthropologists, namely, Paul Radin and Anthony Wallace. Radin, author of Primitive Man as Philosopher, refers to Jung as an "open minded and sympathetic scholar (Radin, 1957, p. 63)." Wallace believes that most psychological treatments of religion are pejorative (Wallace, 1966, p. 21). He makes an exception of Carl G. Jung, and indicates Jung’s great contribution to anthropology is his view of religion "both as a cultural product and as an experience which at once integrates the personality and unites the individual with society and its traditional values (Wallace, p. 22)."

Jung’s psychological ideas are informed by a religious component as it applies to the human being.

Jung…looked upon behavior (and especially religious behavior) as instrumental in the striving of the personality to grow, mature, and achieve integration…. In the normal course of development, the two aspects would fuse; maturation by synthesis of opposing forces was, accordingly, the proper course of growth. But, by reason of various vicissitudes, this happy resolution often did not occur. And herein lay the need for religion, which provided encouragement and a stock of symbolic models for the synthesis of opposing complexes in the psychic life (Wallace, p. 22).

While I will not be addressing the dark side of religion, Jung did know there was one. Religion turns violent when "religious motivation is acting unconsciously (Edinger, 1972, p. 65)," and this is what takes place in religious fanaticism with its destructive consequenses.

PART I – THE STRUCTURE OF THE HUMAN PSYCHE

Jung sees the human being as the religious mammal, that is, religious by virtue of the psyche:

"the totality of all psychic processes, conscious as well as unconscious. The psyche as a perspective contains intimations of pattern and meaning not to the extent of a fixed predestination, but nevertheless, discernible to the individual." (Samuels, 1986, p. 115).

It is from the psyche that religious experience arises and is interpreted in terms of spirits, demons, gods, forces and powers. While Jung does not identify an outside source as God, he implies that, from within the psyche, images and energies can so grip us that we insist there is a power greater than ourselves whom we recognize as something separate from us.

I have to admit the fact that the unconscious mind is capable at times of assuming an intelligence and purposiveness which are superior to actual conscious insight. There is hardly any doubt that this fact is a basic religious phenomenon, which is observed here in a case whose conscious mental make-up was certainly most unlikely to produce religious phenomena (Jung, 1938, 1966, p. 45, 46).

Carl Jung sees the "psyche" as an organic entity which has a built in human agenda to mature, even as the body and brain do. In the simplified figure on Page 5, we see a vertical line connecting ego with self. Jung sees this as the goal of psychic maturity: The ego (center of consciousness) coming to realize it is not the center of the known, and that it must relate to the self (center and circumference of the whole psyche) in order to become a fully functional, healthy and mature adult human being. Experiences that reveal the existence of the self and work to develop the connection (ego-self axis) between the ego and the self fall into the category of what today we would refer to as religious experience, and which Jung identifies with the concept of the numinosum:

A dynamic agency or effect not caused by an arbitrary act of will. On the contrary, it seizes and controls the human subject, who is always rather its victim than its creator. The numinosum—whatever its cause may be—is an experience of the subject independent of his will…. The numinosum is either a quality belonging to a visible object or the influence of an invisible presence that causes a peculiar alteration of consciousness (Jung, CW 11, para. 6).

Because the psyche grows and develops, certain stages of growth require both inner world and outer world events. For instance, the change brought about by a young woman’s first menarche requires a change in psychic development as well. In more ancient cultures than our own, initiation rituals (outer world) helped bring about this shift in consciousness. A "big" dream, vision, from which the woman "awakes" realizing she is no longer a child, would act as an inner world initiation. However, the ritual itself can produce this inner world initiation. Edward F. Edinger, a follower of Jung, writes that the

"aim of all religious practices is to keep the individual (ego) related to the deity (self)…..The innate purpose of religious ceremonies of all kinds seems to be to provide the individual with the experience of being related meaningfully to these transpersonal categories (Edinger, 1972, p. 64).

Simply put, Carl Jung came to identify the human psyche in three basic levels. The one we are most familiar with is consciousness. The second level is the "personal" unconscious. Then we have the collective unconscious. The center of consciousness, Jung labels the "ego," which is the "I" we speak of when we are referring to ourselves. There appears to be no center to the unconscious, but there is a center to the entire psyche which is made up of consciousness and unconsciousness.

Figure 1.

The Human Psyche

"…a structure made for movement, growth, change and TRANSFORMATION."

In infancy, Jung sees the human being as:

"in a state of undifferentiated wholeness. Then just as a seed grows into a plant, the individual develops into a fully differentiated, balanced, and unified personality….rarely if ever reached, except by a Jesus or a Buddha. This striving for self-realization … is archetypal, that is to say, inborn."

More generally put, the ego gets stronger and stronger over time as it deals with the realities of life, until it is strong enough to begin to relate to the self. At the time, this relationship to the self begins, the ego experiences life-changing, dramatic and compelling inner world or outer world events that unquestionably indicate the existence of something beyond ego. The ego is humbled to realize that there is something greater than itself and that it must take this greater something into consideration. An experience of the self is often referred to by the religious mammal as an experience of God or gods.

Experiences of the self.

Jung posits the existence within the human being of something called "the religious need." He defines this religious need as a longing for psychic wholeness. "The religious need…lays hold of the images of wholeness offered by the unconscious, which, independently of the conscious mind, rise up from the depths of our psychic nature (Storr, 1983, p. 329.)"

"Strictly speaking, the God-image does not coincide with the unconscious as such, but with a special content of it, namely the archetype of the self." (Ibid.) Included in the self is our fullest potential and appears to be like magnetic north drawing us toward that destiny (Samuels, pg. 135). In traditional Christian terms, it appears that we have within ourselves the image of God which desires to become fully realized, yet unique to our own genetics and personality—"Christ in you the hope of glory."

This does not mean that Jung equated the self with Jesus Christ. He saw the self as a determining power without conscience. The moral decisions are left to the ego. (Samuels, pg. 136) I see the self as the pregnant receptor of God’s direction to the human person, and this direction is telegraphed to the ego by way of dreams, projections, visions, and so forth. It became the task of the shaman, a person perceived to have special powers, to interpret these for the tribal peoples. The direction provided is to help us become who we were created to be. I use the term "pregnant" because I see this archetypal entity as a receiving device, the self, and being archetypal, often possessing numinosity and conveying a sense of transcendent priority in psychic life. (Samules, Ibid.) This means that symbols reflecting the self "carry the authority of the God image. Jung claims to have "observed intent and purpose in psychic manifestations of the self," Yet because Jung was a scientist and not a theologian, he avoided indicating what might be behind this intent and purpose. I have come to see the source as God.

PART II: PSYCHIC MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SELF

Anthropologists study religion as a kind of human behavior based on belief and ritual concerned with supernatural beings, powers, and forces, the origins of these beings, powers and forces are important to discover. Jung would include among the beings, powers and forces the complexes,

a collection of images and ideas, clustered round a core derived from one or more archetypes, and characterized by a common emotional tone. When they come out to play (become ‘constellated’) complexes contribute to behaviour and are marked by affect whether a person is conscious of them or not." (Samuels, 34)

These complexes act independently from consciousness. Jung would also include the self, the center and circumference of the psyche. "The self demands to be to be recognized, integrated, realised" (Samuels p. 135), and the self does so through various ways, particularly through dreams, also through the "shadow" (our repressed and disowned aspects of psyche). "Symbols of the self often possess a numinosity and convey a sense of necessity which gives them transcendent priority in psychic life. (Samuels p. 136)

Carl Jung understands the self as a "unifying principle within the human psyche which occupies the central position of authority in relation to psychological life and, therefore; the destiny of the individual." The self manifests its presence in a number of ways that Jung noticed in his analysis work with clients. These spheres of manifestation are the very ones that early anthropologists identified as the possible source and reason for human beings being the religious mammal. These include: dreams, visions, mental illness, "mana personalities," (defined further on), and more. E. B. Tylor believed that first came the dream, then the idea that there were spirit beings because of appearances in dreams of known and unknown figures (Tylor, pp. 343,352). Jung sees the dream as one way the "self" manifests itself drawing the human being to wholeness, to balance consciousness which is easily biased by wants and desires rather than what leads to life.

Dreams. While dreams do contain imagery including other human beings, animals, monsters, inorganic objects and religious symbols such as the circle, when the self is significantly present in the dream, it produces an alteration of consciousness through what Jung terms the numinosum. This is a

"…dynamic energy or effect not caused by an arbitrary act of will. On the contrary it seizes and controls the human subject, who is always rather its victim than its creator. The numinosum--whatever its cause may be—is an experience of the subject independent of his will….The numinosum is either a quality belonging to a visible object or the influence of an invisible presence that causes a peculiar alteration of consciousness (Samuels, p. 135)."

It is my contention that it is not just any dream that acts upon the human being to move him/her to religious understanding and expression, but they are the dreams that contain the numinosum that overpowers the normal experience of the world and convinces the ego that there is more to what meets the eye.

For example, a woman who came to me for spiritual direction, I’ll name her Karen, (who has given permission for me to share her story) experienced a dramatic physical healing through a dream where the numinosum was obviously present. She was a woman in her mid 50’s, and had lived with an alcoholic husband who had homosexual tendencies and had not been interested in a sexual relationship since she was 35 years old. She had been suffering from severe illness for 18 years. Here is her dream and response:

It is early evening in Venice, Italy, dark and gloomy enough to indicate the sun is down, yet light enough to be able to see. I am in a gondola being navigated by a man behind me whom I do not know. Suddenly a very fat, happy baby appears in the air near me. It is dripping with a nursing infant’s liquid excrement. I have a strange knowledge that if I eat some of the excrement, I will be healed. I take a big swipe of it and eat it. Immediately I am transformed. I experience being fully my true self, free from repressions and defenses, confident. I shout to others in nearby gondolas to do as I have done, but they are having none of it. They think I am out of my mind. Scenes of sexual release make up the rest of the dream.

When I awake, I am healed. I can hardly believe it. I had come with a cane, barely able to walk and not expecting to live very many more years. I was able to throw my cane away. Yet years later I am still well. This dream completely convinced me of miracles and a power at work beyond my imaginings. I found the courage and strength to leave my draining marriage and have started a new life.

Visions: Similar to dreams, visions take place in the waking state. Most are not pathological, but they can be. Because visions can be bizarre or beautiful beyond anything ever experienced, they lead a person to believe that they come from a "super-conscious power." (Samules: 159-160). Again, the numinosum is breaking through from unconsciousness to consciousness. Here is another example of a numinous experience from a spiritual direction session. The woman involved I’ll call Sarah, (who has also given permission to share her vision) was recently divorced, and as a "ritual" of starting a new life, took her 35 year-old daughter and herself (age 59) to France to study art and prayer with a group of people with similar interests. This in-breaking experience took place in the Church of the Sacred Heart in Paris in May, 2002.

Wandering through Sacre Coure, I chanced upon a life-size bronze statue of Jesus Christ considered to represent the "sacred heart of Jesus." I was experienced in prayerful gazing, and as I stood quietly before this inspirational sculpture, I experienced the Jesus who had been crucified and resurrected. He wasn’t glowing or in any way super-human. He appeared to step from the statue and presented himself to me as fully human. His humanity was so compassionate, free, confident and loving, so "normal" and down-to-earth, that I knew the whole world and myself embraced by this Sprit. I knew this is the Jesus that appeared to the disciples and a group of 500 after he was risen from the dead. No wonder the Christian movement is filled with power and covers the whole world.

Both Karen and Sarah are "possessed" by a transcendent reality that changes them forever. Karen is completely freed of 18 years of chronic, painful illness, able to put an end to a debilitating relationship and move on. Sarah is renewed in her Christian faith when deeply impacted by a personal experience of Jesus Christ. I believe experiences like these convinced our early ancestors that there was more to life than what their five senses could report. Today there is still this more which, in spite of scientific progress, convinces the person transformed that there is an intentional, positive force at work in the world which many call God.

Mana personalities. Certain individuals, from the early shamans to the central figures of the world religions, have received the honor, respect and awe of their followers. These men and women and sometimes children and animals are said to possess "mana."

"Mana is a word derived from anthropology, being Melanesian in origin; it pertains to the extraordinary and compelling supernatural power which emanates from certain individuals, objects, actions and events as well as from inhabitants of the SPIRIT world….Mana suggests the presence of an all-pervading vital force, a primal source of growth or magical healing that can be likened to a primitive concept of psychic energy (Samuels, p. 89)."

Jung writes about the unconscious and its ability to "personify contents. The resultant figures become real in the sense that they have an emotional impact on the ego and undergo change and development (Ibid., p. 117). In other words, whatever images are registered by a person in dreams or visions, these images may automatically, without the intention of the person, be understood by consciousness as "reality." This does not imply truth or falsity. Because there are a multitude of inner images as well as bodily sensations, these can easily be "projected" onto other persons, making these other persons "special" in the extreme.

Projection is a special term that Jung uses to describe the fact that within the unconscious are archetypes of human experience, such as "the mother", "the father", "the wise old man or woman", "the evil dictator", the "mana personality," and many more. Because they exist within the psyche, when we come in contact with a person or object that stimulates this archetype, we attribute this image to the person. For example, Levy-Bruhl used the term "participation mystique" to mean that a person is so identified with another person or object that he can’t distinguish between them. (Samuels, 105). Jung used the term to describe the phenomenon of projection. When a person is projecting onto another person or object, "a part of the personality is projected onto the object, and the object is then experienced as if it were the projected content. (Ibid. p. 106)."

For example, David, the retreat director for Karen, became a "mana" figure to her. To her, he had saved her life. For at least five years, he was larger than life and carried an aspect of the numinosum. In a very real sense he carried the archetype of God and represented God incarnate to her in a very human way.

PART III—SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

The essential origin of religion is the inherent nature of the human being, in particular the psyche. The way the psyche works explains why human beings dream, have day visions, identify mana personalities and project a part of their personalities onto objects and non-material personalities such as natural objects, ghosts, spirits and gods. This confirms Stewart Guthrie’s contention in his book, Faces in the Clouds, A New Theory of Religion, that "religion is best understood as anthropomorphism….(Guthrie, 1993, Preface)."

In the unconscious of the psyche resides the self, which manifests its presence in the forms of dreams, visions, mental illness, mana personalities and more. Human beings experience a manifestation of the self-relating-to-ego as the numinosum, a dramatic, life-changing experience. While it cannot be shown that the God of the Christian is the instigator of these experiences, Jung did indicate that the "God-image" coincides with the archetype of the self. I accept the belief of my Christian faith, that behind the self is the Christian God revealed through the mana personality of Jesus Christ. This God is very personal as it is experienced within the human psyche.

As to the decrease in religious involvement in Western peoples, I believe that the mainline churches provide insufficient meaningful beliefs, rituals and symbols for intelligent, contemporary people. Without beliefs, rituals and symbols that can stimulate and explain a numinous experience, all that is left is social community that fulfills certain social functions with a frosting of the sacred. Jung writes:

There is religious sentimentality instead of the numinosum of divine experience. This is the well-known characteristic of a religion that has lost the living mystery….such a religion is incapable of giving help or of having any other moral effect. (Jung, 1938, 66, p. 37)

Even so, many Americans still find their way to a numinous experience of the Christ and find meaning in the traditional churches. I believe this is because churches, synagogues and mosques provide a publicly known place where numinous experiences are supposed to take place. Being human, many are drawn out of their essential religious nature to such places, and the symbols, rituals and beliefs help some to connect with the numinous, the experience of the divine.

The loss of the numinous in Western life, I believe, has led to the seeking of such in the taking of drugs, in the projection of fulfillment through various addictions such as shopping, overeating, gambling, drinking alcohol, sexuality and falling in love. In Africa and South America, the Christian religion is growing rapidly through the Charismatic Movement which encourages people to become aware of the numinous in their lives, namely, the Holy Spirit, and to learn how to let the Holy Spirit move and guide a person. This Movement is fundamentalist in nature, and promotes biblical concepts such as having dreams, visions, casting out demons, prophesying, speaking in tongues, faith healing and hearing God speak to the adherents.

While I do not see the Charismatic Movement appealing to many traditional Americans, churches could improve their attendance by reinterpreting their beliefs, rituals and symbols for those in their cities, towns and neighborhoods. Many are finding renewal through the Jungian understandings of the psyche and working with their dreams for their own personal growth and fulfillment. The dream has restored the numinosum to a portion of modern life giving religion new meaning.

Teilhard de Chardin, a French Jesuit priest and scientist, describes his awareness and experience of the numinosum:

Throughout my whole life, during every moment I have lived, the world has gradually been taking on light and fire for me, until it has come to envelop me in one mass of luminosity, glowing from within….the purple flush of matter fading imperceptibly into the gold of spirit, to be lost finally in the incandescence of a personal universe (Henderson, 1966, p. 91-2)

This is the essential origin of religion, the numinosum, whatever its source.

.

Endnotes

Jung, Carl G. Psychology & Religion, Yale University Press: New Haven, 1938, 1966.

Jung, Carl G. Memories, Dreams, Reflections. Pantheon: New York, 1968.

Evans-Pritchard, E. E. Theories of Primitive Religion. Clarendon: Oxford. 1965, p. 15.

Jung indicates that in the collective unconscious reside all images of our ancient past as human: "…our modern attitude looks back proudly upon the mists of superstition and of medieval or primitive credulity and entirely forgets that it carries the whole living past in the lower stories of the skyscraper of rational consciousness. (Jung, 1938, 66, p. 41."

Jung writes this about the unconscious: "Now to the extent that unconscious tendencies—be they backward-looking images or forward-looking anticipations—appear in dreams, dreams have been regarded, in all previous ages, less as historical regressions than as anticipations of the future, and rightly so….In so far as no man is born totally new, but continually repeats the stage of development last reached by the species, he contains unconsciously, as an a priori datum, the entire psychic structure developed both upwards and downwards by his ancestors in the course of the ages (Jung, 1959, 90, pp. 278-80)." And also, "The unconscious produces dreams, visions, fantasies, emotions, grotesque ideas, and so forth (Ibid., p. 283.)

Samuels, Shorter & Plant. The Critical Dictionary of Jungian Analysis. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London & NY, 1986, p. 115.

Hall, Calvin S. & Vernon J. Norby. A Primer of Jungian Psychology. Mentor: New York, 1973, p. 81-2.

Colossians 1b:27

Jung indicates that "one can use dreams as sources of information about the possible religious tendencies of the unconscious mind (Jung, 1938, 66, p. 27)."

From 1985 until 1998 I was engaged in the study of church growth world wide, helping American churches implement the most up-to-date methods of reaching their communities with the Christian gospel. At one conference I was seated next to a South American pastor of a very large church who told me about the Charismatic Movement there in Argentina. While studying at Creighton University in Omaha, Nebraska, a Jesuit school, I had several African pastors as fellows. They also shared about the Charismatic Movement there.

Bibliography

Campbell, Joseph. Ed. The Portable Jung. Viking Penguin, Inc.: New York, 1971.

Edinger, Edward F. Ego and Archetype. Shambhala Publications: Boston, 1972.

Evans-Pritchard, E. E. Theories of Primitive Religion. Clarendon: Oxford, 1965.

Jung, C. G. Psychology & Religion. Yale University Press: New Haven, 1938, 1966.

________. The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious. Princeton University Press: 1959, 1990.

Guthrie, Stewart. Faces in the Clouds, A New Theory of Religion. Oxford University Press: New York, 1993.

Hall, Calvin S. & Vernon J. Nordby. A Primer of Jungian Psychology. Mentor: New York, 1973.

Henderson, Charles P. Jr. God and Science. John Knox Press: Atlanta, 1986.

Metcalf, Peter & Richard Huntington. Celebrations of Death. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK, 1991.

Radin, Paul. Primitive Man as Philosopher. Dover Publications, Inc.: New York, 1927, 1955, 1957.

Samuels, Shorter & Plant. The Critical Dictionary of Jungian Analysis. Routledge & Kegan Paul: London & New York, 1986.

Storr, Anthony. The Essential Jung. MJF Books: New York, 1983.

Tylor, E. G. Anthropology, An Introduction To The Study Of Man And Civilization. D. Appleton and Company: New York, 1888.

Wallace, Anthony F. C. Religion, An Anthropological View. Random House: New York, 1966.

_______________

© Sacred Quest 2004

[Back to Sacred Quest Articles]